Take direct action for climate justice!

Where next for the climate justice movement after the failure of Copenhagen, the inspiration of Cochabamba? How can we move from demanding climate justice to actually fighting for climate justice? By taking direct action wherever we are to shut down major emitters, to fight false solutions, to reclaim our power over our own lives.

Two years ago, the Latin American network ‘Global Minga’ called for an annual day of action in defence of mother earth on October 12, reclaiming the day that used to be imposed as ‘Columbus Day’. Responding to this call, and the demand for a day of action for ‘system change, not climate change’ made in Copenhagen by the global movements, Climate Justice Action is proposing a day of direct action for climate justice on October 12, 2010

To discuss and plan this day of action, and other next steps for our movements, Climate Justice Action is organising a 2-day gathering that is open for everybody who is interested in the fight for climate justice. The meeting will be held at a climate camp in Bonn, Germany, from the 29th to the 30th of May. 

What’s on the agenda?

We will be discussing not only the day of direct action, there will also be folks giving feedback from the People’s Summit in Cochabamba, updates about the mobilisation towards COP16 in Cancun, Mexico, and plenty of time for working groups. But given that the main purpose of this meeting is to organise the Day of Action, it would be great if groups could come with concrete proposals for how to get involved in it. 

Practicalities

The meeting will be happening at the Bonn Climate Camp, in a meadow at an organic farm in Bonn-Messdorf (seewww.gutostler.de), 20 minutes by bus from Bonn train station.The meeting will take place from 10am to 6pm on both days, and you can arrive on the 28th. Food will be provided for a donation. Given that the meeting will be held in a climate camp, you should, if possible, bring a tent and sleeping bag. If that is not possible or desirable for you, please let us know in advance (mail to: CJABonn[at]gmail.com).

See you all in Bonn – and if not, see you on the streets on October 12th!




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Sorry for the delay. Here is an unofficial translation of the Mesa 18 declaration, and the original below in Spanish. 

Declaration of Table 18

Collective rights and rights of the mother earth

National council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu

This working group established itself as a necessary space of reflection and criticism within the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of the Mother Earth. Its objective is to give a deeper examination into the local effects of global industrial capitalism. We take on the responsibility of questioning the so called popular Latin American governments and their destructive and consumerist logic, and the deadly logic of neo extractive development. 

The distinct interventions within this working group have contributed in setting out the contradictions within the process as well as bringing forward proposals in advancing the road to ‘good living’.

The People’s World Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of the Mother Earth is a demonstration of the magnetism that has woken up this process. In order to guarantee that this process deepens and extends as an example of hope to the whole continent and the peoples and communities of the world, its necessary to show the existing contradictions, reflected in social environmental conflicts.

These contradictions are the result of not applying the aforementioned principles. This working group proposes to contribute to active mechanisms of coordinated struggle, through the support of this process.

The social and popular organisations and the original farming (‘campesinas’) indigenous communities of Latin America and of the rest of the world met in Tiquipaya 20-21 April of 2010. The process of developing the 18th  table brought proposals to define foundations for implementing a New Model of Managing Natural Resources to counter the capitalist production model still prevalent in Latin America. which is situated in industrial development and the consolidation of transnationals, funded in private property, individual gain and consumerism, aspects which have been put to judgement by the nations and the people of Latin America. The development plans of these governments, including the Bolivian government, only reproduce the development model of the past.

To challenge climate change humanity needs to remember its cultural collective communatarian roots – this means building a society based on collective property and in the communal and rational management of natural resources, where the peoples decide in a direct way the destiny of natural wealth in accordance with their organising structures, their self determination, their norms and procedures and their vision of how to manage their territories.

History teaches us that there is only one effective way to transform society and to construct a social alternative to capitalism, that is the permanent mobilisation and articulation of our struggles.

We resolve the following:

  1. We renounce imperialism, transnationals and the so called progressive Latin American governments that implement mega energy and infrastructure projects under the IIRSA in any of Latin American territories – particularly in indigenous territories and protected areas – which are designed by banks, business men and private builders with a neoliberal and exploitative vision.

  2. We demand to change the pseudo development model which privileges the exportation of raw materials. We propose to take forward the construction of alternatives which are in the interest of the peoples, privileging equity, solidarity and complementary.

  3. We ask to establish a rational management model of natural resources in accordance with the philosophy, culture, customs and uses of the people, and which bases itself on a social and communitarian model, respectful of the Rights of the Mother Earth.

  4. Because of the lack of the will from governments of the world – we demand the power, as social organisations and farmers/peasants, to define a new management model and direct control of natural patrimony. With direct control by the workers from the farm and the city to establish policies of managing biodiversity in relation to necessity and not the dependence of our countries.

  5. We ask the states to respect and realise inidigenous rights already accepted by the UN thanks to the fight of the first indigenous farmers/peasant organisations. We demand the derogation of the legal norms which criminalise our social struggles in defence of our communal territories and that sanction criminal governments.

  6. Make public the necessity to eliminate large landowners, the pirating of biodiversity and agrobusiness, and to recuperate ancestral knowledge of the nations and first indigenous peasants/farmers peoples in the world, the promotion of ecological production, the reproduction of the communitarian model, the training in reproducing forests and biodiversity in an attempt to confront climate change.

  7. We demand the retraction and expulsion of all transnationals, of those NGOs which support projects of the aforementioned corporations, and the media that propagandise and violate collective rights. We demand the recuperation of the natural goods that have been devastated and exhausted. We propose the suspension of all extractive activity, work or projects that are responsible and a cause of climate change, the displacement of peoples from their territories, and the environmental – social effects in territories of nations and peoples in the world.

  8. We demand the fulfillment of collective rights violated in social environmental conflicts in the following cases:

    Corocoro – Jacha Suyu Pakajaqi, Lliquimuni – Indigenous people of Mosetén – San Cristobal – FRUTCAS Southeast of Potosí – Mutún – Chiquitanía Pantanal, TIPNIS – CONISUR, Cuenca Huanuni, Lago Poopo, Río Desaguadero, Cañadón Antequera, Consejo de Capitanes Guaranis Tarija, Charagua Norte – Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní de Charagua Norte – represa del Río Madera en Brasil y Bolivia – struggle for common property and land, MST Bolivia and farmer/peasant movement of Córdova, Argentina – Justice for the original indigenous farmer/peasant community massacred in Porvenir, Pando, the 11 de septiembre of 2008 – mining contamination in Potosí – deforestation and mining in  Guarayos – mining in the North of  Chichas – cases Andalgalá en Catamarca y San Juan in Argentina – conflicts over forests in Mapuche territories and other national and international cases (see annex – n/a at moment) with which we declare our solidarity in their struggles. 

  9. All these points make up the mandate of the peoples united at the 18th table – started by the Council of the Ayullus and Markas of Qullasuyu and other social organisations in the world – all of which should be fulfilled by all the states that benefit from the goods of the mother earth. 

ESPANOL 

DECLARACIÓN MESA Nº18

DERECHOS COLECTIVOS Y DERECHOS DE LA MADRE TIERRA

CONSEJO NACIONAL DE AYLLUS Y MARKAS DEL QULLASUYU

Esta mesa convocada por el CONAMAQ representa a los pueblos del mundo.

La Mesa Nº 18 se constituyó como un espacio necesario de reflexión y denuncia en el marco de la Conferencia Mundial de los Pueblos sobre el Cambio Climático y los Derechos de la Madre Tierra, a fin de profundizar la lectura sobre los efectos locales del capitalismo industrial global. Asumimos la responsabilidad de cuestionar a los regímenes latinoamericanos denominados populares y a la lógica depredadora y consumista, la lógica de la muerte del desarrollismo y del neo extractivismo.

Las distintas intervenciones contribuyeron a establecer las contradicciones del proceso y aportar juntos propuestas para fortalecer el camino hacia el buen vivir.

La Conferencia Mundial de los Pueblos sobre el Cambio Climático y los Derechos de la Madre Tierra es una demostración del magnetismo que ha despertado este proceso. Para garantizar que este proceso se profundice y se extienda como un ejemplo alentador a todo el continente y a los pueblos del mundo, es necesario visibilizar las contradicciones existentes, reflejadas en los conflictos socioambientales.

Estas contradicciones son el resultado de la no aplicación de los principios mencionados. Esta mesa se propone contribuir a activar mecanismos de lucha coordinada en apoyo a este proceso.

Las organizaciones sociales y populares y comunidades indígenas originarias campesinas de Latinoamérica y del resto del mundo, reunidas en Tiquipaya los días 20 y 21 de abril de 2010 en el marco del desarrollo de la Mesa Nº 18 con el propósito de definir las bases para la implementación del Nuevo Modelo de Gestión de los Recursos Naturales para revertir el Modelo de Producción Capitalista aún imperante en Latinoamérica, que radica en el desarrollo industrial y la consolidación de las transnacionales, fundado en la propiedad privada, el lucro individual y el consumismo, aspectos que han sido puestos en tela de juicio por las naciones y pueblos de América Latina. Los planes de desarrollo de estos gobiernos, entre ellos el boliviano, sólo reproducen el esquema desarrollista del pasado.

En este sentido, para enfrentar el cambio climático la humanidad debe encontrarse con sus raíces culturales colectivas comunitarias; eso significa construir una sociedad basada en la propiedad colectiva y en el manejo comunitario y racional de los recursos naturales, en la cual los pueblos decidan de manera directa el destino de la riqueza natural de acuerdo a sus estructuras organizativas, a su autodeterminación, sus normas y procedimientos propios y su visión de manejo integral de sus territorios.

La historia nos enseña que sólo hay un camino efectivo para transformar la sociedad y para construir una alternativa socialista al capitalismo: la movilización social permanente y la articulación de nuestras luchas.

RESOLVEMOS:

PRIMERO.- Repudiamos al imperialismo, a las transnacionales y a los gobiernos del denominado progresismo latinoamericano que impulsan proyectos de energía y mega infraestructura de la Iniciativa para la Integración de la Infraestructura Regional Suramericana (IIRSA) en todos los territorios latinoamericanos –especialmente territorios indígenas y áreas protegidas– diseñados por bancos, empresarios y constructores privados con una visión neoliberal y explotadora.

SEGUNDO.- Exigimos cambiar el modelo de pseudo desarrollo que privilegia las exportaciones de materias primas. Se plantea avanzar en la construcción de alternativas que estén en función de los intereses de los pueblos, privilegiando la equidad, la solidaridad y la complementariedad.

TERCERO.- Pedimos concertar y construir un modelo de gestión racional de los Recursos Naturales acorde a la filosofía, cultura y usos y costumbres de los pueblos, que se sustenta en un modelo social y comunitario respetuoso de los Derechos de la Madre Tierra, Pachamama, Gaia…

CUARTO.- Ante la falta de voluntad política de los gobiernos del mundo, las organizaciones sociales y campesinas exigimos la facultad de definir un nuevo modelo de gestión y control directo del patrimonio natural. El control directo de los trabajadores del campo y de la ciudad impongan políticas de gestión de la biodiversidad en función de las necesidades de los y no de la dependencia de nuestros países.

QUINTO.- Pedimos a los Estadosrespetar y hacer cumplir los derechos indígenas aprobada por la ONU gracias a la lucha de las organizaciones indígenas originarias campesinas. Exigimos la derogación de las normas legales que criminalizan las luchas sociales en defensa de los territorios comunitarios, y que se sancione a los gobiernos criminales.

SEXTO.- Hacer pública la necesidad de eliminar el latifundio, la biopiratería y el agronegocio; y recuperar el conocimiento ancestral de las naciones y pueblos indígenas originarios campesinos del mundo; la promoción de la producción ecológica, y la reproducción del modelo comunitario, las capacidades de reproducción del bosque y la biodiversidad, para hacer frente al Cambio Climático.

SEPTIMO.- Exigimos la reversión y la expulsión de las corporaciones transnacionales, de algunas ONGs que apoyan los proyectos de dichas corporaciones, y de medios de comunicación que propagandizan el saqueo y vulneran los derechos colectivos. Exigimos la reposición de los bienes naturales depredados y usurpados. Planteamos la suspensión de toda actividad, obra o proyecto extractivo responsable y causante del Cambio Climático, del desplazamiento de poblaciones de sus territorios, y de las afectaciones socioambientales en territorios de las naciones y pueblos indígenas originarios campesinos del mundo.

OCTAVO.- Exigimos el cumplimiento de los derechos colectivos vulnerados en los conflictos socioambientales en los siguientes casos: Corocoro – Jacha Suyu Pakajaqi, Lliquimuni – Pueblo Indígena Mosetén – San Cristobal – FRUTCAS Sudoeste de Potosí – Mutún – Chiquitanía Pantanal, TIPNIS – CONISUR, Cuenca Huanuni, Lago Poopo, Río Desaguadero, Cañadón Antequera, Consejo de Capitanes Guaranis Tarija, Charagua Norte – Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní de Charagua Norte – represa del Río Madera en Brasil y Bolivia – lucha por la propiedad comunitaria de la tierra, MST Bolivia y movimiento campesino de Córdova, Argentina – Justicia para los pueblos campesinos indígena originarios masacrados en Porvenir, Pando, el 11 de septiembre de 2008 – contaminación minera en Potosí – deforestación y minería en Guarayos – minería en Nor Chichas – casos Andalgalá en Catamarca y San Juan en Argentina – conflictos forestales en el territorio Mapuche, y otros casos nacionales e internacionales (ver anexo), a los cuales brindamos plena solidaridad en su lucha.

NOVENO.- Todos estos puntos se constituyen en el mandato de los pueblos reunidos en la Mesa 18 –promovido por el Consejo de Ayllus y Markas del Qollasuyu y otras organizaciones sociales del mundo– los cuales deben ser de cumplimiento vinculante por todos los Estados que aprovechan los bienes de la Madre Tierra.

ES DADO EN TIQUIPAYA A LOS 21 DÍAS DEL MES DE ABRIL DE 2010

POR LA DEFENSA DE NUESTROS DERECHOS, NUESTROS TERRITORIOS Y LOS DERECHOS DE LA MADRE TIERRA

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It´s been a while since I last wrote and I don´t want to bore you with my dental difficulties but I am still here in Cochabamba. I had intended to leave last night, which despite a 24 hour national bus strike, looked like it would still be possible. However, while waiting for my last dental appointment I found myself experiencing the worse pain I´ve ever known (even my hair hurt) and ended up in hospital for yet more jabs in the arse. Apparently my bone is exposed as my gum has not yet healed so I am stuck here even longer and have another two days of no food to look forward to.

Meanwhile, two of our new friends did finally managed to leave. They´ve been volunteering here with Somos Sur (http://www.somossur.net/) and have launched a new website featuring hundreds of articles about climate conferences (http://www.cumbrescambioclimatico.org/). We visited their home for their going away party as they have to leave Bolivia as their visas are expiring. Previously that would have just meant leaving the country for a day and coming back in but sadly the rules have changed. They are now off to Ecuador to do more voluntary work. We've asked them to let us know about struggles they come across which involve UK based companies.

In my last post I promised I'd write about the International trade fair. That post also spoke a lot about feminism but I don't want to give a false impression. This is a sexist city in a sexist country in a sexist continent on a sexist planet. Cochabamba has high rates of domestic and sexual violence, I read 7 out of 10 women here experience such violence.The adverts here feature the same sexist images as elsewhere in the world only even more offensive for being so unprepresentative of the people and culture they are trying to sell shit to. White brunette nuclear families at a dinner table smile as the coca-cola is served by mum, long legged bikini clad tanned models adorn ads selling 'American Chemical', saloon fresh European glamour girls sell cosmetics and US style teens promote mobile phones. I have not seen a single advert representing the culture or ethnic makeup of the majority of the people here and it is little wonder that just as people in the UK are often ashamed of their less than advert perfect bodies, people here are apparently frequently ashamed of their own ethnicity.

It seems there is nothing that a tall skinny 'white' womens body can not be used to sell – which bring me too the trade fair. We didn't plan to go, in fact we'd not even known it was on. However Alejandra and the band (warmi pachakuti) were playing and it was the last chance Agnes would have to say goodbye before heading to La Paz and then London.

So, we found ourselves at the entrance to this place and instantly knew we didnt want to go in. We compromised, Chris waited outside and Agnes and I ventured in. Inside was Babylon, a temple to consumerism with vast exhibition stands for coca-cola, pepsi, telecoms companies, banks, vehicle manufactures, fashion outlets, processed food brands, airline companies and much more. We passed vast arrays of huge flat screen TVs, then giant American SUVs displayed climbing piles of rock (which is at least somewhat representative of some of Bolivias roads). Almost every stand had a minimum of two drop dead sexy tall skinny young women in shiny figure hugging dresses or hot pants. Entering one area I thought to be a car park, three of these goddesses came up to me and handed me a flyer for HGV trailers made by a company called 'Guerra' (which translates as war). I looked around and indeed this 'car park' was infact all trailers, flat beds and oil tankers from this company. The sales technique was persuasive and I was tempted to buy one but my baggage allowance wouldn't stretch to it.

Perhaps the most incredible stand was for a company which made bricks, roof tiles and other architechual ceramics. Yes, even they had four glamour models to entice people in but they had gone a step further. Towering above the already towering women were half a dozen brick and tile sculptures made to look like… yes, more women, this time in long flowing colonial style dresses (made of different type of roof tiles).

The contrasts between this event and the rhetoric of the conference a week earlier were stark. This event show cased not only the big brands of transnational imperialism but also the big players in Bolivias industrial output. One stand had a variety of factory machinery from lathes to battery hens feeding mechanisms and dairy equipement. The Entel phone company had their logo on everything from bins to the main stages.

I found myself comparing the place to glastonbury festival, we'd walked through the crowded babylon of the main drag past dozens of snazy corporate strands and endless cola and burger stalls. Our mission led us to the Ecoligical Pavillion with much smaller crowds. There, we watched the band perform, necked some chicha and checked out the variety of organic products being promoted by the green capitalists. Among the plastic vacum packs of dried tropical fruits and pots of herbal cure-alls, I came across some organic fairtrade coffee that is apparently made by climate refugees from Bolivias altiplano. Having been driven from their homes by lack of water, they have moved to the tropical region where they now cultivate coffee plants under the rainforest canopy. This, and a number of conversations I participated in since I arrived, made me realise that migration isn't just about people moving from county to country but also being forced to shift within national borders, often swelling the masses in the cities.

Anyway, when Agnes had gone and Alejandra and I were wandering around in awe, we came across one of the stages. A folk band was playing but although there was a crowd dancing, they did so against a fence which separated them from an obviously VIP section of tabled seating in front of the stage. Alejandra wanted to get inside and locating a security person standing at the one gap in the fencing she pulled some kind of 'my friends are inside blag' and we found ourselves inside.

It was quiet surreal. On the outside were loads of people dancing and inside, with unrivaled views of the stage were perhaps a hundred rich people in suites and posh party dresses at tables crammed with classes, jugs of cocktails and wine bottles in coolers. They had table service from waiters in bow ties and I never saw any money change hands as the tables were kept flowing with booze. Despite the alcholic lubricants these people were almost entirely static, pretty much ignoring the band on stage. Just in case these people should feel a chill, the organisers had thoughtfully provided a number of gas powered patio heaters, perhaps inspired by the bastion of corporate evo awareness 'Hopenhagen' where people stopping to admire the seimens sponsored cycle power Xmas tree lights were also warmed by these fossil fuelled planet warmers.

Things got more surreal when the rest of Alejandras band arrived. We had gone back outside of the VIP area to dance but soon found ourselves ursured back in when our dancing had formed a snake like chain twisting through the crowd. Perhaps desperate to liven things up a bit in the VIP, our human chain ended up right up the front of the stage. Eventually even some of the stuffed shirts on the tables got up an joined the dance. 
 
Afterwards Alejandra spoke about how strange (and wrong) it all was. The VIP section consisted mostly of the rich and powerful from places like Santa Cruz. The band had playing had managed to get a small critique into their set when they sang of the Miss Bolivia who became infamous for being white, blonde and non-spanish speaking Bolivian, who said she represented the other Bolivia.
 
The next day I went to the another type of festival, a tradditional peoples festival of fertility. I had hoped this would cheer me up but actually it was pretty depressing. The location was a bit of land on the southern outskirts of Cochabamba which has been sacred for as long as can be remembered. Then the catholic church came along and build a church there. Now the festival merges ancient rituals to pachamama with the false idolism of catholisism and consumer aspirations. Before reaching the site you pass through a huge outdoor market where hundreds of stalls sell miniture ceramic cows, sheep, pigs, chickens, and even babies. These respresent the desires of the people, their dreams for the coming year. But the stalls also now sell fake money (including US dollars and Euros), credit cards, passports, driving licenses, houses, cars and motorbikes. I wouldnt be surprised if there were miniture flat screen plasma TV´s available as well. These were taken first to the dusty courtyard before the church were people built fires and made their offerings to mother earth, and then people queued to enter the church to hedge their bets with the holy trinity. 
 
Oh well, I guess it would be more depressing if I thought it would actually work. The last thing mother earth needs is to be handing out new cars and credit cards to an ever growing number of consumers intent on western style consumerism.
 
I should finish with something perhaps a little more cheerful. In the last couple of days the Bolivia government has nationalised what I believe is the main electricty company here (and I think that includes the ´national´ grid). Althought it´s not nationalised in the true sense of the word and some people say it´s just propoganda, it seems that having a controlling interest could be an essential first step to ensuring a sensible energy policy is in place to address global warming. While profit is still being exctracted by investors, it might mean that the government now have a powerful tool by which to enact some of the rhetoric they have been so keen to have attributed to them. Time will tell. 
 
 
 
  

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In Memoriam: Jyri Jaakkola
May 1, 2010 by intlibecosoc
The 33-year old Finn Jyri Jaakkola—climate activist, revolutionary,
human—was murdered on 27 April while participating as an international
observer in a caravan destined to the community of San Juan Copalá in
the state of Oaxaca, México.  He went as an associate of VOCAL
(Oaxacan Voices Constructing Autonomy and Liberty) in a convoy that
was intended to deliver much-needed food and other supplies to the
autonomous municipality which has for months been cut off by
paramilitary organizations.  The caravan was at a certain point
ambushed and fired upon; Jyri and Beatriz Alberta Cariño Trujillo were
killed.  Those responsible are said to be members of the Union of
Social Welfare for the Triqui Region (UBISORT), an organization that
has been said to be a paramilitary group tied to México’s
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)—the party of the present
governor of the state of Oaxaca, Ulises Ruiz Ortiz.[1]

The present author had the pleasure of knowing Jyri but for a few
days, this during the Encounter for Autonomous Life that took place in
Oaxaca de Juárez in early April.  He was a member of the Finnish
grassroots environmental organization Hyökyaalto as well as of Climate
Justice Action, and he partook in protests during the 15th meeting of
the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen last December.  During the
Encounter, he presented an account of the Copenhagen meeting and the
activities that took place to resist it, showing pictures of sit-ins
and manifestations organized by protestors as well as disturbing
images of police brutality directed at such.  He closed his plática,
or talk, with a list of demands adapted from those advocated by
Climate Justice Action:  that fossil fuels be kept in the ground, that
local communities obtain control over their resources, that
food-production be localized, that Northern over-consumption patterns
be massively reduced, that the concept of ecological and climate
debt[2] be recognized and that reparations be granted to Southern
societies, and that the rights of indigenous peoples and forests be
respected.

Jyri was in the audience for the talk “Atmospheric Dialectics,”
presented during the final day of the Encounter, and it was he who
spurred dialogue after the conclusion of this decidedly depressing
speech.  His kindness and warmth will not forgotten.

Jyri expressed to the author his desire to participate in actions
surrounding the COP-16 meeting that is slated to take place at Cancún
in November and December of this year.  Sadly, he will be able to do
no such thing now.  It is perhaps to be hoped, though, that that which
will occur at Cancún would have pleased Jyri; in this sense, it may be
that we can commemorate him thusly in life, against death.

Beside the talk he gave during the “COP, Cochabamba, and local
actions: sources in the struggle against global warming” event held on
the second evening of the Encounter for Autonomous Life, Jyri was
filmed in an interview by x while at the Encounter.  It is available
here; his section begins at 20:28.

Jyri’s passing brings to mind some of Hannah Arendt’s comments in The
Human Condition: “Men, though they must die, are not born in order to
die but in order to begin.”[3] It is time that we began—that we act to
realize Arendt’s affirming negation of her mentor and former lover
Martin Heidegger here, that we work to realize “a rational
establishment of overall society as humankind.”[4] It is to be
imagined that Jyri, like the rest of the Earth’s multitude that today
suffers brutal repression and violence, would wish for such.

——————————————-

[1] Octavio Vélez Ascencio, “Desaparecidos, varios de los emboscados
en Copala,” La Jornada, 29 April 2010.

[2] Andrew Simms, Ecological Debt: Global Warming & the Wealth of
Nations (London: Pluto, 2009).

[3] p. 246.

[4] Theodor W. Adorno, “Progress,” Benjamin: Philosophy, Aesthetics,
History, ed. Gary Smith, trans. Eric Krakauer (Chicago: Univ. of
Chicago Press, 1989).


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A few nights ago a bunch of us attending a public meeting of SomoSur (We Are South) who had organised a debrief of the conference declaration (which I posted an english translation of on this blog a couple of days ago). One of us got to make a presentation about Carbon Trading. During the event we were told that the Mesa 18 declaration has also been placed on the official website which is amazing if true. I´ve not confirmed it myself. Speaking of Mesa 18, last night we meet with some of the organisers for a chat and to get contact details for some of the organisations which spoke or are actively resisting extractive industries in Bolivia.

 
Our numbers have dwindled, its´s just me an Chris remaining in Cochabamba now. I´ve rearranged my flight home as I´ve got emergency dental work to complete and there is now no point to me spending time in Mexico City on my stop over as Via Campesina have cancelled the meeting I was planning on attending. Chris has been pretty ill, diagnosed with three different types of stomoach infection including one with a 10 – 15% motality rate if left undiagnosed. Pretty much all of us have been ill to some degree, either flu like symptoms or stomach bugs. Personally those issues have been dewarfed by accute tooth ache which didn´t stop when I had the tooth pulled at the start off the conference. I´ve now got an old filling to be removed and replaced on Monday and had another decayed wisdom tooth pulled yesterday. Poor chris had to go to hospital as they were thinking of sticking him on a drip (they didn´t and hes much better now). Meanwhile, after the dentist I also found myself in hospital. Apparently some bone in my jaw needed cutting away which carried a high risk of infection so I ended up with my trousers around my ankles and a nurse jabing a dose of antibiotics in my arse.

I briefly mentioned the 'Lachiwana' radio show 'Ankallis' (rebels) which we appeared on ealier in the week. We were invited by our amazing new friend Alejandra who last week shocked her Cochabamba comrades by suddenly revealing she could speak English. She was the person kind enough to take me to her dentists at the start of the conference. I first came across Alejandra my first night in town. I was treating the first signs of toothache by swigging beer from a bottle in Plaza Colon while wondering if public drinking was frowned upon here. Meanwhile she was with a group of women practising pan pipes and wondering who the tall threatening street drinker was.

I was surprised to be introduced to her the following evening at a meeting between local activists and our little gang of European imports. I actually recognised her by her bicycle (they don't seem to be very common here). We were meeting in the main plaza before moving somewhere else to talk and this time I wasn't the only gringo on the bottle, and pretty much everyone else was chewing coca leaves. I tried the coca leaves as relief from toothache but without success. I also learned that Alejandra also had tooth troubles which over the next few days would result in an affinity being formed.

Alejandra works at the Democracy Centre in Cochabamba where I had been invited to a party on the last night of the conference. I spoke to her there briefly when I arrived but she was rushing off with her friends to dance somewhere. Aware that I hadn't been sent to have a good time, I stayed at the party to chat and took the opportunity to interview some of the activists there. I also grabbed a rushed an ill-conceived interview with Naomi Klein. She was reluctant and just about to leave but she owed me. She gave a couple of minutes which I wasted asking an irrelevant question before remembering she'd spoken briefly at Mesa 18 but by then it was too late. Fortunately I forgot to hit record so didnt actually waste any space. 

My other interviews went much better and should be available on Dissident Island radio after i get back to the UK. However, during one of the interviews my phone rang (terminating the recording since I use my phone as a recorder). It was Alejandra but I could barely make out the words due to excessive background noise at both ends. Basically it boiled down to cops giving people trouble a few streets away where third night of street partying was taking place to celebrate the end of the conference.

I tried to pull others away to rush to the scene with me but without success so I arrived alone. About a dozen armed police were strutting about in the street and people were hanging about on the pavement and doorways. I soon found myself chocking on tear gas while I streamed live video on to qik.com. However the cops soon moved off and within seconds people emerged from the cafes and bars carrying tables. In no time at all the party was back in full swing.

At the heart of this street party was my friend Alejandra and the all women pan pipes band I mentioned earlier. They rocked the street and had the crowd in a frenzy of dancing and cheering. After a while they starting moving down the street but they were not alone. Much like the Rythmns of Resistance samba band in London protests, the band took almost a hundred people in tow and soon blocked yet another road on route to their destination.

I later learned that this group are highly unusual. Convention has it that women only sing or dance while the men play the instruments. However this band embraces indigenous traditions while rejecting sexist elements and developing the culture into the contemporary context. The band is highly political, rooted in resistance and struggle, not put off by a little tear gas. The lyrics, though based on traditional songs, are modified to carry more approbriate messaging. For example, one song previsously blaming women for men getting drunk has be transformed into a song calling women from their domestic chores to join those dancing. Another orginally about seducing women by getting them drunk is now a song about sexual concent and equality.

This theme of strong women engaged in struggle is reflected throughout the history of Cochabamba. Agnes and I took 
the Red Tinku alternative political history tour of the city and learned how even the language here had been influenced by the women who have given their lives in struggle and resistance over the centuries.

Red Tinku had been criticised by some for exploiting gringos during the conference. Our group had considered staying at their social centre but were put off by prices several times the cost of a cheap hostel in the city. However we did eventually end up there for a pachamama ritual which involved large quantities of coca leaves and bucket loads of booze. When I say buckets, I mean it literally – the bar consisted of three barrels from which people were served 5 litre buckets costing under £2.50 a go.

The party involved lots of highly energetic dancing but also a performance about humanities relationship with nature. I followed as best I could with my limited Spanish and later checked with friends to see how accurate my attempts had been. For the most part I had it spot on until the end but I'm sure my version was better than their own.

The performance told a story about a tree and a man, covering the period of the mans life from childhood to old age. At first the boy is entranced by the tree, playing amongst it's branches, they are friends. Some years pass and money is now the preoccupation of the young man. The tree offers it's fruit for the man to sell and the man greedily strips the tree bare. More time passes and the man returns to the tree complaint of needing something else. I'm not quite sure what exactly, perhaps a home or fuel but either way the tree kindly offers it's branches and the man thoughtlessly cuts them all off and drags them away. More years pass and the man returns to the tree which is now just a trunk. He complains of being restless, he needs a boat to go off and explore. Once more the tree offers itself, this time it's trunk, in order that the man can make a boat. In the final scene the man is back but an aged old man bent over and walking with a stick. Apparently he complains about his aching feet and the tree, now just a stump, offers itself as a seat and that's the end of the performance. However, I interpreted it differently. In my version the aged old man is complaining of having cancer and the tree is sorry to inform him that it's leaves once offered a cure for cancer but since being stripped down to a simple stump the tree now has nothing to offer beyond a place to sit and die.

Anyway, on that cheerful note, I should probably wrap this up since the internet cafe I am in is about to close. I wanted to mention Agnes going on the campasina radio on a show about women in politics and I wanted to tell you about the amazing contrast I experienced last night at the Cochabamba International Fair but that will have to wait…

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(From Agnes – Thursday 22 April)

This morning we had our side event which was entitled ‘Building
Bridges Across Continents with Grassroots Climate Justice Movements’.
We used this space to introduce the movements within Europe, their
politics and a bit of a background of mobilisation for Copenhagen
through Climate Justice Action. We had a good turn out and many people
from different struggles and different parts of the world were present
– we know this because we asked them to fill in little papers about
where they came from and more about their struggle – and then
visualised it on an upside down map! It was good energy particularly
because the plan was to use some of this time to start planning for a
global day of action.

CJA has taken up a call from the Global Minga for a day of action on
October 12th. I believe that this day is symbolic because for some
it’s Columbus day and for this reason people in the South are trying
to reclaim it. We split into groups to first discuss what are our
allies and obstacles in building climate justice and then get into
actual planning for the day of action.

People like the face to face interaction and there were many ideas of
how to start building for this day of action – being inclusive enough
so that different tactics can be used by different groups,
coordinating some type of media work so that actions are not isolated,
etc. One of the barriers people spoke about in international planning
is the inability to meet and the use of internet and unfortunately we
finished the workshop with getting emails for a email list – but I
hope that we layed the groundwork to get people talking back to their
networks.

The meeting continued outside, but I got distracted talking to some
friends from the US and Italy where we shared stories about our
networks. And then I got distracted by a Chilean friend who was
looking for people to join a press conference of sort where they would
discuss particular strategies against mining companies in Chile,
Argentina and Bolivia. For some reason he thought I was a reporter.
When I explained to him more about what Climate Camp did – take direct
action on the root causes of climate change – his friend got really
excited. I gave the example of RBS and tar sands and how we were
trying to get at the financing part of the tar sands mining project
and she just stood there and asked ‘Why didn’t they talk about this in
the actions/strategies working group?’ !! We swapped emails so we
could keep one another updated and they went to look for more people.

Closing remarks
I somehow ended up going to the closing ceremony. I stayed through all
the speeches and they were kind of interesting. I enjoyed the fact
that Chavez said there were 18 working groups – admitting to the mesa
18 – whether he knew it or not. The way he speaks is engaging – he was
amassing us to the battle of Cancun so that we don’t allow the
politics of imperialism to continue. Giving personal anecdotes of how
he was the only one who refused to sign the FTAA. He even said
something about funding people to go to Cancun and ensure that our
message is not lost because it is legitimate and this process was
inclusive, open and an example of true democracy.

Evo continued saying that we have achieved something great and now we
have to ensure that the global north and UN listened to our voices –
we need to convince, persuade, explain what has happened here – and if
they don’t listen we have to organise. It is a great discourse,
powerful, necessary – no other world leaders have analysed climate
change looking at its root causes and defended people and mother earth
like Evo – but we didn’t really discuss how we would organise if these
words fell on deaf ears.

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(From Agnes – Wednesday April 21, 2010)

I went back to the structural causes working group today.  I was
hoping to meet up with my Venezuelan friends. I was really interested
in hearing more about the ‘civilising model’ that they kept talking
about and also wanted to know what they thought of the process within
Venezuela. Through whispered conversations I already knew that they
saw it as a long process that would culminate when their country
stopped using the capitalist extractive economic model to fund the
socialist revolution, but I wondered how they saw it unfolding.

I stayed long enough to hear two climate deniers ! They weren’t really
successful from swaying any focus from the task at hand – discussing
the danger of green capitalism, individualism and the need for
collectivism. Unfortunately, I didn’t stay long enough to meet with my
friends because they were focused on their interventions and I was
distracted by the side event we were invited to by the Democracy
Centre. I was getting nervous and went off to the internet to remind
myself of all the wonderful actions we did against E.On and when I
came back everyone had disappeared.

MESA 18
So I went back to the mesa 18 where Ben and I arranged to meet at 3pm
because there was supposed to be a talk on San Cristobal. We thought
it would be a good idea to let everyone know abut the action happening
the next day in London and maybe work with someone on a message to
send back. Before anything started I went up to one of the organisers
telling him my intention – his eyes lit up. He told me that I must
announce this to everyone once they got started. So I sat down and
sent Ben ahead to the panel inteding to follow right after the
announcement, but I never left.

Instead of the discussion on San Cristobal the mesa 18 went straight
into drafting a declaration so that it could be presented along with
all the other ones later that eveing. A draft declaration went up on
the screen and they went through it sentence by sentence – any
intervention that was made went automatically into the document – it
was only then challenged, discussed, questioned with further
interventions or simply applauded in agreement. This is how in a space
of more than 100 people consensus was reached.

It was a hot/heated ( ‘caliente’ ) discussion and I was amazed and
excited about the process and the end result. The declaration is raw
and more powerful than anything else I read in the conference. I
didn’t really take notes, but I’ll try to translate the final document
and post it.

At no point did I feel it was appropriate for me to intervene in this
process, my Argentine friend kept saying to wait until the end. But
before the document was finalised the person I spoke to orginally made
the announcement saying that some people in London would be having a
solidarity action the following day. Everyone cheered. I smiled. This
is what it’s about!

This was followed by an announcement was about the cultural protest
that would meet outside within a half hour. Over fifty people went to
the university with their posters and masks hidden, but once inside
they marched around the University denouncing the contradictions of
this conference of the discourse chanting:
‘Basta de mentiras que aqui la pachamama esta siendo vendida’ /
‘Enough with the lies, here mother earth is being sold’

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The english version of the declaration from the conference is now available. It´s also worth noting that apparently the declaration from Mesa 18 is now also included on the government website which is pretty amazing….

Cochabamba, Bolivia April 22nd

Today, our Mother Earth is wounded and the future of humanity is in danger.

Should global warming increase by more than 2º C, which the so-called "Copenhagen Understanding" would lead us to, there is a 50% chance that the damage caused to our Mother Earth will be totally irreversible. Between 20% and 30% of species would be in danger of disappearing. Large tracts of forest would be affected, droughts and floods would afflict different regions of the planet, deserts would spread and the melting of the icecaps and glaciers in the Andes and the Himalayas would get worse. Many island states would disappear and Africa could suffer from a temperature increase of over 3º C. Likewise, reduced food production in the world would have catastrophic effects for the survival of the inhabitants of vast regions of the planet, and dramatically increase the number of hungry people in the world, which already exceeds a billion people.

Corporations and governments of so called "more developed" countries in complicity with a segment of the scientific community, get us talking about climate change as a problem limited to the rise of temperature without questioning the root cause which is the capitalist system. We confront the terminal crisis of the patriarchal model of civilization based on the subjugation and destruction of human beings and nature that accelerated with the industrial revolution.

The capitalist system has imposed upon us a logic of competition, progress, and unlimited growth. This mode of production and consumption seeks profit without limits, separating human beings from nature, establishing a logic of domination over her, turning everything into a commodity: water, land, the human genome, ancestral cultures, biodiversity, justice, ethics, peoples’ rights, death, and life itself.

Under capitalism, Mother Earth in converted into merely a source of raw materials and human beings into merely the means of production and consumers, into people who are valued by what they have and not by what they are.

Capitalism requires a strong military industry for its process of accumulation and control of territories and natural resources, thus suppressing people’s resistance. It is an imperialist system colonizing the planet. Humanity is facing a great dilemma: continue on the path of capitalism, predation and death, or the path of harmony with nature and respect for life. We need to build a new system to restore harmony with nature and among humans. There can only be balance with nature if there is equity among human beings.

We propose to the peoples of the world: recovery, revaluing, and strengthening of the knowledge, wisdom, and traditional practices of Indigenous Peoples, affirmed in the experience and proposal of "Living Well", recognizing Mother Earth as a living being, with whom we have an indivisible, interdependent, complementary, and spiritual relationship.

To face climate change we must recognize Mother Earth as the source of life and forge a new system based on the principles of:

- harmony and balance between everyone and everything
- complementarity, solidarity, and equity
- collective well-being and satisfaction of everyone’s basic needs in harmony with Mother Earth
- respect for Mother Earth’s Rights and Human Rights
- recognition of human beings for what they are and not what they have
- Elimination of all forms of colonialism, imperialism, and interventionism
- peace among peoples and Mother Earth.

The model we promote is not about destructive or unlimited development. Countries need to produce goods and services to meet the basic needs of their population, but there is no way can they continue on this development path in which richer countries have a ecological footprint five times larger than the planet can bear. They have already exceeded the planet’s capacity to regenerate by 30%. At this rate of over-exploitation of our Mother Earth, two planets will be needed by 2030.

In an interdependent system of which humans are only one of its components, it is not possible to only recognize the rights on the human side without causing an imbalance in the whole system. To ensure human rights and restore harmony with nature, it is necessary to recognize and enforce Mother Earth’s rights.

To do that, we propose the attached draft of the Universal Declaration of Mother Earth’s Rights in which are recorded:

- Right to life and existence;
- Right to be respected;
- Rights to continue her vital processes and cycles free of human disturbance;
- Right to maintain her identity and integrity as distinct beings, self-regulated and interrelated;
- Right to water as the source of life;
- The right to clean air;
- The right to overall health;
- Right to be free from contamination and pollution, from toxic and radioactive waste;
- Right not to be genetically altered and structurally modified thus threatening her integrity or her vital and healthy functioning.
- Right to a full and speedy recovery from violations of the rights recognized in the Declaration caused by human activities.

The shared vision is to stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gases to give effect to Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change which determines the "stabilization of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference within the climate system." Our vision is based on the historical principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. We demand that developed countries commit to quantified targets for reducing emissions that allow a return of atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations to 300 ppm thus limiting the increase in global mean temperature to a maximum level of 1° C.

Stressing the need for urgent action to achieve this vision, and with the support of peoples, movements, and countries, the developed countries should commit to ambitious targets for reducing emissions that achieve short-term objectives, while maintaining our vision of a balance in the Earth’s climate system, according to the ultimate objective of the Convention.

The "shared vision" for the "Long-term Cooperative Action" should not be reduced to just the climate change negotiations which define limits to temperature increases and the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but must include a comprehensive and balanced set of measures which cover finances, technology, adaptation, capacity building, patterns of production, consumption and other essentials such as the recognition of the rights of Mother Earth in order to restore harmony with nature.

Developed countries – the primary culprits of climate change – assuming their historical and current responsibility, must recognize and honor their climate debt in all its dimensions as the basis for a just, effective, and scientific solution to climate change. In this context we urge developed countries to:

- Restore to developing countries their air space which is occupied by your emissions of greenhouse gases. This implies a decolonization of the atmosphere by reducing and absorbing your emissions.
- Assume the costs and technology transfer needs of developing countries to make up for their loss of development opportunities due to living in a restricted air space.
- assume responsibility for the hundreds of millions that will have to migrate due to climate change which you have caused and eliminate your restrictive migration policies and provide migrants with a decent life and full rights in your countries.
- Assume adaptation debt related to the impacts of climate change on developing countries by providing the means to prevent, minimize and deal with damages arising from your excessive emissions.
- Honor those debts as part of a greater debt to Mother Earth adopting and implementing the Universal Declaration on the Rights of Mother Earth at the United Nations.

The focus should not be on just financial compensation but rather principally on restorative justice – that is restoring integrity to the people and other members who form a community of life on Earth.

We deplore the attempt by a group of countries to cancel the Kyoto Protocol – the only specific binding instrument for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in developed countries.

We warn the world that despite being legally bound, the emissions of developed countries were not reduced but rather grew by 11.2% between 1990 and 2007.

Because of unlimited consumption, the United States’ GHG emissions increased by 16.8% over the period 1990 to 2007, emitting on average between 20 and 23 tons of CO2 per capita. This represents more than 9 times the emissions of an average inhabitant of the Third World, and more than 20 times the emissions of an inhabitant of sub-Saharan Africa. We completely reject the illegitimate "Copenhagen Understanding", which allows developed countries to offer insufficient reductions of greenhouse gases, based on voluntary and individual commitments that violate the environmental integrity of Mother Earth leading us to an increase of about 4 º C.

The forthcoming Climate Change Conference to be held later this year in Mexico should adopt the amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, for the second commitment period to begin in 2013-2017 in which developed countries must commit significant domestic reductions of at least 50% compared to 1990 base excluding carbon markets or other diversion systems that mask the failure of actual reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases. We first need to establish a goal for all developed countries and then make individual allocations for each country developed in the context of a comparison of effort between each of them, thus maintaining the Kyoto Protocol system for emission reductions.

The United States of America, as the only country on Earth in Annex 1 which did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol has a significant responsibility to all peoples of the world as it should ratify the Kyoto Protocol and commit to, respect, and comply with economy-wide emissions reduction targets.

The people have the same rights of protection from the impacts of climate change and reject the notion of adaptation to climate change understood as a resignation to the impacts caused by historic emissions of developed countries, who must adapt their life styles and consumption patterns to this planetary emergency. We are forced to deal with the impacts of climate change, considering adaptation to be a process rather than an imposition, and also as a tool that serves to counteract the impacts, showing that it is possible to live in harmony under a different model of life.

An Adaptation Fund needs to be created: a fund exclusively devoted to addressing climate change as part of a financial mechanism operated and managed in a sovereign, transparent and equitable manner for our states. Under this fund, the following should be evaluated: the impacts and their costs to developing countries and the needs that arise due to these impacts, as well as recording and monitoring the support given by developed countries. It also must operate a mechanism to indemnify for damages caused by impacts, past and future, for opportunities lost and restoration due to extreme and gradual climate events, and additional costs that could arise if our planet exceeds the ecological thresholds such as those impacts that are curtailing the right to live well.

The immense challenge we face as humanity to stop global warming and to cool the planet will only be achieved by profoundly transforming agriculture into a sustainable agricultural production model with indigenous/native origins as well as other ancestral ecological models and practices that contribute towards a solution to the problem of climate change and ensure food sovereignty This is understood to be the right of peoples to control their own seeds, land, water and food production, thus ensuring that people have access to sufficient, varied and nutritious foods through local and culturally appropriate production in harmony with and which complements Mother Earth thus deepening the independent production (participatory, community oriented, and shared) of each nation and people.

Climate change is already having profound impacts on the agriculture, livelihoods, and ways of life of indigenous / native peoples and peasants in the world and these impacts will become worse in the future.

Agribusiness through its social, economic and cultural development model of globalized capitalist production, and its logic of food production for the market rather than fulfilling the right to food, is a major cause of climate change. Its technological tools, commercial and political do nothing but deepen the climate crisis and increase hunger in the world. For this reason we reject Free Trade and Association Agreements and the application of all forms of Intellectual Property Rights on life, current technological packages (agrochemical and GM), and those that offer themselves as false solutions (biofuels, geo-engineering, nanotechnology, terminator technology and the like) which will only exacerbate the current crisis.

At the same time, we denounce the way in which this capitalist model imposes infrastructure mega-projects, invades territories with extractive projects, privatizes and commodifies water, militarizes territories and expells indigenous peoples and peasants from their lands, thus thwarting Food Sovereignty and deepening the socio-environmental crisis.

We demand recognition of the right of all peoples, living beings, and Mother Earth to have access to and enjoy water and we support the Bolivian Government´s proposal to recognize water as a Fundamental Human Right. The definition of forest used in the negotiations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which includes plantations, is unacceptable. Monoculture plantations are not forests. Therefore, we require a definition for negotiating purposes that recognizes native forests, rainforests, and the diversity of ecosystems on earth.

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples must be fully recognized, implemented and integrated into the climate change negotiations. The best strategy and action to avoid deforestation and degradation and to protect native forests and rainforest is to recognize and guarantee collective rights to lands and territories, especially considering that most of the forests and rainforests are in territories belonging to indigenous peoples and nations, peasant and traditional communities. We condemn market mechanisms such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and its + and + +, versions, which violate the sovereignty of Indigenous peoples and their right to free, prior, and informed consent, as well as the sovereignty of nation states which violate of the rights and customs of Peoples and the Rights of Nature.

Polluting countries are required to directly transfer the economic and technological resources to pay for the restoration and maintenance of forests and rainforests to the benefit of organic, ancestral, indigenous, native, and peasant peoples and structures. This should be a direct compensation and additional to the sources of funding committed to by developed countries, outside of the carbon market and never serving as carbon offsets. We demand that countries stop local initiatives in forests and rainforests that are based on market mechanisms and that propose conditional and non-existent results. We demand from governments a global program to restore native forests and rainforests, managed and administered by the peoples, implementing forest seeds, fruit trees, and native flora. Governments should eliminate forest concessions and support the conservation of oil in the ground and urgently stop the exploitation of hydrocarbons in rainforests.

In particular, we call upon States to legally recognize the prior existence of the right to our territories, lands, and natural resources which provide a basis for and strengthen our traditional ways of life and contribute effectively to solving the climate change.

We demand the full and effective implementation of the right to consultation, participation, and prior, free, and informed consent of Indigenous Peoples in all negotiation processes as well as in the design and implementation of measures relating to climate change.

At present, environmental degradation and climate change will reach critical levels, and one of the main consequences will be internal and international migration. According to some projections, in 1995 there were around 25 million climate migrants, at present this is estimated to be 50 million, and projections for 2050 show that between 200 – 1000 million people will be displaced by situations resulting from climate change.

Developed countries must take responsibility for climate migrants, welcoming them into their territories and recognizing their fundamental rights through the signing of international conventions providing for the definition of migrant climate that all States abide by its determinations.

Establish an International Tribunal of Conscience to denounce, expose, document, try and punish violations of the rights of the migrants, refugees and displaced persons in countries of origin, transit, and destination, clearly identifying the responsibilities of States, companies and other actors.

Current funding earmarked for developing countries for climate change and the Copenhagen Understanding proposal are insignificant. Developed countries must commit to new annual funding, in addition to official development assistance and public sources, of at least 6% of their GDP to tackle climate change in developing countries. This is feasible considering that a similar amount is spent on national defense and that five times more than that was spent to rescue failing banks and speculators, which raises serious questions about their global priorities and political will. This funding should be direct, unconditional and not violate the national sovereignty or self-determination of the communities and groups most affected.

Given the inefficiency of the current mechanism, the Mexico Conference should establish a new funding mechanism that operates under the authority of and is accountable to the United Nations Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, with significant representation from developing countries to ensure Annex 1 countries comply with funding commitments.

It has been confirmed that over the period 1990 – 2007, the developed countries increased their emissions despite having stated that the reduction would be substantially assisted by market mechanisms.

The carbon market has turned into a lucrative business by commercializing our Mother Earth. This does not represent an alternative to tackling climate change since it loots and ravages the land, water, and even life itself. The recent financial crisis has shown that the market is incapable of regulating the financial system, which is fragile and uncertain when faced with speculation and the emergence of middle men, therefore, it would be totally irresponsible to leave in its hands the care and protection of human existence itself and of our Mother Earth.

Expand and promote the carbon market given that existing mechanisms never solved the problem of climate change or became real and direct action in reducing greenhouse gases .We consider it unacceptable that the current negotiations seek to create new mechanisms that expand and promote the carbon market given that existing mechanisms have never solved the problem of climate change nor did they ever turn into real and direct action towards reducing greenhouse gases.

It is essential to require compliance with the commitments made by developed countries at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding the development and transfer of technology and reject the "technological showcase" proposed by developed countries that only comercialize the technology. It is essential to establish guidelines for creating multilateral, multidisciplinary and participatory control, management, and ongoing evaluation of the exchange of technologies. These technologies must be useful, clean, and socially appropriate. It is equally essential to establish a fund for the financing and inventory of technologies that are appropriate and free of intellectual property rights, in particular of patents that should be transferred from private monopolies into the public domain, freely accessible and at low cost.

Knowledge is universal, and may not for any reason be the subject of private ownership and private use, nor its applications in the form of technology. It is the duty of developed countries to share their technology with developing countries, to create research centers for the creation of their own technologies and innovations, as well as defending and promoting their development and application in order to live well. The world needs to regain, learn, and relearn the principles and approaches of the ancestral legacy of Indigenous peoples in order to stop the destruction of the planet, as well as ancestral knowledge and practices and the recovery of spirituality in the reintegration of living well together with Mother Earth.

It must support States submitting claims in the International Court of Justice against developed countries that fail to meet their commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, including their commitments to reduce greenhouse gases. We urge the people to propose and promote a thorough reform of the United Nations (UN), so that all Member States comply with the decisions of the International Climate and Environmental Justice Tribunal.

The future of humanity is in danger, and we cannot accept that a group of leaders of developed countries want to decide for all countries, as they tried to do unsuccessfully at the Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen. This decision rests with all peoples. It is therefore necessary to hold a world referendum, plebiscite, or popular vote on climate change where we are all consulted on: the level of emission reductions that should be made by developed countries and transnational corporations, the financing that developed countries should provide, the creation of an International Climate Justice Tribunal: the need for a Universal Declaration of the rights of Mother Earth, and the need to change the current capitalist system.

The process of a World Referendum, plebiscite or popular vote will be the result of a process of preparation that ensures its successful development. In order to coordinate our international actions and implement the results of this "Peoples’ Agreement" we call for building a Global People’s Movement for Mother Earth which is based on the principles of complementarity and respect for diversity of origin and visions of its members, constituting a broad and democratic space for coordination and joint action worldwide.

To this end, we adopt the attached global action plan so that in Mexico the Annex 1 developed countries will respect the existing legal framework and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 50% and take on the various proposals contained in this Agreement.

Finally, we agree to hold the 2nd World Peoples’ Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth in 2011 as part of this process of building a Peoples’ Global Movement for Mother Earth and to react to the results of the Climate Change Conference to be held later this year in Cancun, Mexico.

(translated by Alan Forsberg http://www.cmpcc.org.bo/PEOPLES-AGREEMENT)

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